Neet Exam Biology Syllabus 2025

UNIT l: Diversity in Living World

What is living? Biodiversity, Need for classification, Taxonomy & Systematics, Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy, Binomial nomenclature.

Five kingdom classification, salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups, Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing featues and atleast two examples of each category).

Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inllorescence - cymose and recemose, flower' fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus) Family (malvaceae, Cruciferae, leguminoceae, compositae, graminae).

Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (Frog). (Brief account only)

UNIT 3: Cell Structure and Function

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles - structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function), Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates. lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-rypes, properties' enzyme action, classification and nomenclature of enzymes.

B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT 4: Plant PhYsiologr

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary-.idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration: Exchange gases; cellular respiration-glycolysis. fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations - Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant gowth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.

UNIT 5: Human Physiology

Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animars (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration. Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output. ECG. Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders ofcircuratory system - Hypertension, coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion - Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system - structure and fuction; Urine formation, osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function - Renin - angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor,' ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal fairure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement - ciliary, Flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system - Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse;

Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system - Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, Thyroid, parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary ldea); Role of hormones as messengers and regurators, Hypo and hyperactivity and rerated disorders (common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease).

(lmp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

IINIT 6: Reproduction

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation: Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; lnfertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

IJMT 7: Genetics and Evolution

Heredity and variation: Mendelian lnheritance; Deviations from Mendelism - Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-ln humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Tumer's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Moleculat basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing, protein biosynthesis.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modem Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolutionVariation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT 8: Biology' and Human Welfare

Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm, dengue, chikungunya); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.Tobacco abuse.

Microbes in hurnan welfare: In household food processing, lndustrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

tiNIT 9: Biotechnology and its Applications

Principles and process of Biotechnology Genetic engineering (Recornbinant DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in hcalth and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops: Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT l0: Ecology and Environment

Organisms and environrnent, Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Populaticn attributes-growth. birth rate, and death rate, age distriburion.

Ecosystem: Pattems, components; productivity aud decomposition: Energy flow: Pyramids of number, biomass. energy

Biodiversity and its conservation: concept of Biodiversity; patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms. extinction, Red Data Book. biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries, Sacred Groves.